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At the free end of the body is a mouth opening surrounded by one to twelve thin, mobile tentacles. Each tentacle, or cnida plural: cnidae , is clothed with highly specialised stinging cells called cnidocytes. Cnidocytes contain specialized structures called nematocysts , which look like miniature light bulbs with a coiled thread inside. At the narrow outer edge of the cnidocyte is a short trigger hair called a cnidocil. Upon contact with prey, the contents of the nematocyst are explosively discharged, firing a dart-like thread containing neurotoxins into whatever triggered the release.
This can paralyze the prey, especially if many hundreds of nematocysts are fired. Hydra has two main body layers, which makes it " diploblastic ". The layers are separated by mesoglea , a gel-like substance. The outer layer is the epidermis , and the inner layer is called the gastrodermis , because it lines the stomach. The cells making up these two body layers are relatively simple. Hydramacin  is a bactericide recently discovered in Hydra ; it protects the outer layer against infection.
A single Hydra is composed of 50, to , cells which consist of three specific stem cell populations that will create many different cell types. These stem cells will continually renew themselves in the body column. When a Hydra is cut in half, each half will regenerate and form into a small Hydra ; the "head" will regenerate a "foot" and the "foot" will regenerate a "head". If the Hydra is sliced into many segments then the middle slices will form both a "head" and a "foot".
Respiration and excretion occur by diffusion throughout the surface of the epidermis , while larger excreta are discharged through the mouth. The nervous system of Hydra is a nerve net , which is structurally simple compared to more derived animal nervous systems. Hydra does not have a recognizable brain or true muscles. Nerve nets connect sensory photoreceptors and touch-sensitive nerve cells located in the body wall and tentacles. Some have only two sheets of neurons.
If Hydra are alarmed or attacked, the tentacles can be retracted to small buds, and the body column itself can be retracted to a small gelatinous sphere. Hydra generally react in the same way regardless of the direction of the stimulus, and this may be due to the simplicity of the nerve nets. Hydra are generally sedentary or sessile , but do occasionally move quite readily, especially when hunting. They do this by bending over and attaching themselves to the substrate with the mouth and tentacles and then relocate the foot, which provides the usual attachment, this process is called looping.
In somersaulting, the body then bends over and makes a new place of attachment with the foot. By this process of "looping" or "somersaulting", a Hydra can move several inches c. Hydra may also move by amoeboid motion of their bases or by detaching from the substrate and floating away in the current.
When food is plentiful, many Hydra reproduce asexually by budding. The buds form from the body wall, grow into miniature adults and break away when mature. When a hydra is well fed, a new bud can form every two days.
Swellings in the body wall develop into either ovaries or testes. The testes release free-swimming gametes into the water, and these can fertilize the egg in the ovary of another individual. The fertilized eggs secrete a tough outer coating, and, as the adult dies due to starvation or cold , these resting eggs fall to the bottom of the lake or pond to await better conditions, whereupon they hatch into nymph Hydra.
Some Hydra species, like Hydra circumcincta and Hydra viridissima , are hermaphrodites  and may produce both testes and ovaries at the same time. Many members of the Hydrozoa go through a body change from a polyp to an adult form called a medusa , which is usually the life stage where sexual reproduction occurs, but Hydra do not progress beyond the polyp phase.
Hydra mainly feed on aquatic invertebrates such as Daphnia and Cyclops. While feeding, Hydra extend their body to maximum length and then slowly extend their tentacles. Despite their simple construction, the tentacles of Hydra are extraordinarily extensible and can be four to five times the length of the body. Once fully extended, the tentacles are slowly maneuvered around waiting for contact with a suitable prey animal. Upon contact, nematocysts on the tentacle fire into the prey, and the tentacle itself coils around the prey.
Within 30 seconds, most of the remaining tentacles will have already joined in the attack to subdue the struggling prey. Within two minutes, the tentacles will have surrounded the prey and moved it into the opened mouth aperture. Within ten minutes, the prey will have been engulfed within the body cavity, and digestion will have started. Hydra are able to stretch their body wall considerably in order to digest prey more than twice their size. After two or three days, the indigestible remains of the prey will be discharged through the mouth aperture via contractions.
The feeding behaviour of Hydra demonstrates the sophistication of what appears to be a simple nervous system. Some species of Hydra exist in a mutual relationship with various types of unicellular algae. The algae are protected from predators by Hydra and, in return, photosynthetic products from the algae are beneficial as a food source to Hydra. The feeding response in Hydra is induced by glutathione specifically in the reduced state as GSH released from damaged tissue of injured prey.
In some, the duration for which the mouth remains open is measured. This method has been validated using a starvation model, as starvation is known to cause enhancement of the Hydra feeding response. The species Hydra oligactis is preyed upon by the flatworm Microstomum lineare. Hydras undergo morphallaxis tissue regeneration when injured or severed. Typically, Hydras will reproduce by just budding off a whole new individual; the bud will occur around two-thirds of the way down the body axis.
This regeneration occurs without cell division. If the Hydra is sliced into many segments, the middle slices will form both a "head" and a "foot". There is both a head and foot activation and inhibition gradient. The head activation and inhibition works in an opposite direction of the pair of foot gradients. The inhibitors for both gradients have shown to be important to block the bud formation. The location that the bud will form is where the gradients are low for both the head and foot.
Daniel Martinez claimed in a article in Experimental Gerontology that Hydra are biologically immortal. In , Preston Estep published also in Experimental Gerontology a letter to the editor arguing that the Martinez data refute the hypothesis that Hydra do not senesce.
The controversial unlimited lifespan of Hydra has attracted much attention from scientists. The transcription factor " forkhead box O " FoxO has been identified as a critical driver of the continuous self-renewal of Hydra. In bilaterally symmetrical organisms Bilateria , the transcription factor FoxO affects stress response, lifespan, and increase in stem cells.
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Book Appointment. Follow Follow Follow Follow. Most of their body cells are stem cells , Martinez said. These cells are capable of continuous division and differentiation into any cell type in the body. In humans, such "totipotent" cells are present only in the first few days of embryonic development.
Hydra, by contrast, constantly renew their bodies with fresh cells. In , Martinez and his colleagues published a study describing how they found no signs of aging in mature hydras over four years. To detect aging, researchers look at senescence, which is defined as an increased rate of death and a decline in fertility with greater age. The new research involved creating little islands of paradise for 2, hydras. The researchers wanted to give the animals ideal conditions, which meant giving each an individual dish, with the water changed thrice weekly, plus meals of fresh brine shrimp.
Over eight years, the researchers found no evidence of senescence in their coddled hydra. Death rates held constant at one per hydras per year, no matter their age. The "oldest" animals studied were clones of hydras that had been around for 41 years — though individuals were only studied for eight years, some were biologically older because they were genetic clones.
Likewise, fertility remained constant for 80 percent of the individual hydras over time. The other 20 percent fluctuated up and down, likely because of laboratory conditions.
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